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Geography
Scotland is a part of the British Isles, a group of islands located off of the nort-west coast of Europe. Scotland itself is in the northernmost part of the largest island, Britain. The remaining part of the island is England.
 
Language and Culture

The languages of Scotland divide into three major divisions today: English, Scots, and Gaelic. A fourth language, Cumbric, closely related to Welsh, is now extinct.

English is the most recent language to be added to the Scottish linguistic heritage; it is one of the many major changes brought into Scottish culture as a result of the loss of Scottish independence in 1707. Scots and Gaelic are of much greater antiquity.

 
Scots
The Dictionary of the Scots Language is available on the web.
 
 
Gaelic
Akerbeltz has good information on Gaelic pronunciation, and a wealth of other information as well.
 
Culture
The Gathering 2009 in Scotland will be the biggest and most impressive glan gathering ever.
Rampant Scotland has an enormous number of links to things Scottish.
 
Tartans and kilts
XMarkstheScot is a forum site focused on encouraging the wearing of the kilt.
 

Music

Scottish music is a topic that defies easy classification. For an introduction, take a look at the Wikipedia introduction to Scottish music.

Traditional Music - Scots
Ed Miller
 
Traditional Music - Gaelic
Julie Fowlis
Mary Jane Lamond
Christine Primrose
Traditional Music - Instrumental
 
Contemporary music
Scocha makes modern Scottish music
 
History
Wikipedia has a brief introduction to the history of Scotland